(WASHINGTON) — One in 88 children is diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, or ASD, by age 8, according to a study released Thursday by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention — a rate that has risen far above the 2006 estimate of 1 in 110.
But experts remain locked in debate about whether these numbers tell the whole story.
The CDC report, which analyzed data from 2008, indicates a 23 percent rise in diagnoses of ASDs over a two-year period.
The news could be most alarming for boys. The study reports that on average 1 in 54 boys was diagnosed with autism, compared to only 1 in 252 girls.
But what this rise actually means is still a mystery. Some doctors contacted by ABC News believe a broader definition of autism has contributed to rising rates.
“I think it has to do with changing diagnostic criteria, including mine over the years which have made me label many more children as being on the autism spectrum than say 10-20 years ago,” said Dr. Isabelle Rapin, professor of pediatrics and neurology at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. “Not only physicians, but parents, teachers, therapists and the public are much more aware of the symptoms of autism, and I suspect some may apply the diagnosis based on one symptom, which is inadequate.”
Dr. Lisa Shulman, also at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, echoed this concern.
“Over the years, children with autistic disorder remain a relatively small group in our center,” said Shulman, director of Infant and Toddler Services at Einstein and an associate professor of pediatrics. “It is the group of children with milder social-communicative impairment and without a large array of mannerisms and atypical interests consistent with an ASD diagnosis that has increased significantly.”
The data was collected by The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring network, an organization funded by the CDC to track autism rates. For this report, the ADDM reviewed medical records of 8-year-old children from 14 different areas across the country.
The study focused specifically on 8-year-olds because most autism spectrum diagnoses are made by the time a child reaches their eighth birthday. The signs of autism are often seen much earlier, however. Some experts believe that the first hints of abnormal behavior can be seen as early as 6 to 12 months.
As for the new research, the CDC was quick to caution that these results may not be applicable to the whole country, as data from only certain sites around the nation was collected. This means that the CDC report relies on the records of many different providers across the country.
Numbers aside, scientists are still searching for what causes autism in the first place.
Copyright 2012 ABC News Radio