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Stalking More Commonplace, Less Reported at Colleges

Stalking More Commonplace, Less Reported at Colleges

iStock/Thinkstock(HUNTSVILLE, Texas) — As much as stalking is a serious crime, it fortunately hasn’t reached epidemic proportions yet.However, it has become more of a problem on college campuses than with the general public, as evidenced by a study from Sam Houston State University student researchers Patrick Q. Brady and Leana A. Bouffard.Stalking, which involves repeated conduct that causes a reasonable person to become fearful, was experienced by 4.3 percent of college students over the past 12 months. In comparison, 2.2 percent of the general public said they had been stalked.Another difference is reporting the crime. Although 32 percent of the general public claimed to have filed a police report, just one in four victims of alleged stalking at colleges did the same.Previous studies have shown that the highest rate of offenses involve current or former intimate partners usually between 18 and 24 years old.Researcher Brady says the results of their study indicate “that more is needed to build the capacity of universities and public safety officials to systematically address the barriers that inhibit victims from reporting.”

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US Birth Rate, Teen Pregnancy Rate Hit All-Time Lows in 2013

US Birth Rate, Teen Pregnancy Rate Hit All-Time Lows in 2013

michaeljung/iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- New data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released on Wednesday show that the birth rate and the teen pregnancy rate in the U.S. both hit all-time lows in 2013.In 2013, the general fertility rate -- the number of babies born to women between the ages of 15 and 44 -- was 62.5 children per 1,000 women. That figure is one percent lower than in 2012 and nine percent lower than in 2007. The CDC says that the U.S. birth rate has been on the decline since 2007.The agency also noted that teen pregnancies were down an astonishing 10 percent from 2012 to 2013. Even more shocking, that same figure was down 57 percent from 1991.While teen pregnancies were down significantly, the CDC also says birth rates among women in their 20s were also at historic lows, while those figures for women in their 30s, 40s and 50s all increased.

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Pediatric Flu Death Reported in Wisconsin

Pediatric Flu Death Reported in Wisconsin

iStock/Thinkstock(PORT WASHINGTON, Wisconsin) -- The Ozaukee County Public Health Department in eastern Wisconsin reported on Wednesday that it has seen the first pediatric flu death of the season.The OCPHD notes that the state of Wisconsin averages just two pediatric flu deaths each year. The Wisconsin Department of Health Services says that 3,000 people have been hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza across the state this flu season. A whopping 72 percent of those hospitalized were over the age of 65.Last week, the WDHS announced the death of a pediatric patient in the city of Milwaukee. "Seasonal influenza is not life-threatening for most people; however, this is a serious disease that can be especially dangerous for children, older adults, individuals with compromised immune systems and those with chronic health illnesses," Karen McKeown, state health officer, said.

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Untangling the New Daily Aspirin Study: Many Don’t Really Need It

Untangling the New Daily Aspirin Study: Many Don’t Really Need It

iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- If you're taking aspirin to prevent heart attack and stroke, there's a chance you may not need to be popping the little white pills after all.Researchers at Baylor College of Medicine and several other health institutions studied records of 69,000 people taking daily aspirin for primary prevention of heart attack and stroke. They concluded that more than 1 in 10 of them didn't need to be taking the over-the-counter drug because their risk of developing heart disease was too low to warrant a daily aspirin regimen, according to the study published this week in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology."Aspirin is a really powerful drug but it can cause serious side effects," said ABC News' chief health and medical editor, Dr. Richard Besser. "It is very important that it only be used in those people for whom the benefits outweigh the risks."Aspirin risks can include stroke caused by burst blood vessels and gastrointestinal bleeding, both of which can be fatal, cardiologists say. But the researchers in this study did not look at aspirin-related complications -- such as gastrointestinal bleeding or ischemia -- in people taking it inappropriately."People have a tendency to think that aspirin is a benign drug, which it is not," said Dr. Daniel Simon, chief of cardiovascular medicine at UH Case Medical Center in Cleveland.People should take daily aspirin for heart disease prevention only if they have a more than 6 percent risk of developing heart disease over the next 10 years, according to the American Heart Association. This new study deemed anyone taking daily aspirin with a lower risk to be using the drug "inappropriately."Simon said people can use online tools, such as the Framingham Risk Score, to determine their risk, or ask their doctors. Questions generally include age, gender, smoking status and family history.The Journal of the American College of Cardiology study did not include people who had already had a heart attack, stroke or anything else that would warrant aspirin for prevention of a second cardiovascular problem. They also did have information on specific aspirin doses.Researchers cautioned that their study could have underestimated inappropriate aspirin use in part because participants self-reported their aspirin use and aspirin is available without a prescription. They also noted that because they got their data from the PINNACLE cardiovascular patient registry, and PINNACLE practices are pushed for quality improvement, that non-PINNACLE practices might have even higher instances of inappropriate aspirin use.Dr. Walter Clair, interim executive medical director of the Vanderbilt Heart and Vascular Institute, said he often sees patients who self-prescribe aspirin, but don't need it. This is because people who have hearts that skip beats, for instance, don't need to take aspirin."When I delve into why, they confuse the fact because they have an electrical problem, they have a plumbing problem," he said.Still, some people need to be on aspirin and don't take it because they don't like the bruising.The bottom line, Besser said, is that if patients are unsure, they should ask their doctors."Given that the recommendations for its use have been changing over time and that some people for whom it was once recommended should no longer be taking it, patients who are on aspirin should ask their doctors whether it is still the right drug for them," Besser said.

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The Americas Went to the Dogs 10,000 Years Ago

The Americas Went to the Dogs 10,000 Years Ago

iStock/Thinkstock(URBANA, Ill.) — Man’s best friend may not have shown up in the Americas until long after man had settled here.Although previous studies theorized that the ancestors of modern-day dogs migrated from Alaska anywhere from 20,000 to 40,000 years ago, Kelsey Witt, a biologist at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, says that the estimated time of arrival was likely 10,000 years ago.Witt made her deduction by examining the mitochondrial DNA of more than 80 individual dogs at sites in both North and South America.Still, even if Witt is correct in her assessment, she says it doesn’t discount the significance of these domestic pets.Witt maintains, “Dogs are one of the earliest organisms to have migrated with humans to every continent, and I think that says a lot about the relationship dogs have had with humans.”

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Millions Have Eaten Thousands of Pizza Slices

Millions Have Eaten Thousands of Pizza Slices

iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — Let’s see. Six thousand divided by eight is 750, which means if you’re a typical American, you’ve consumed the equivalent of 750 pizza pies from the age of eight to 70 years old.Actually, CiCi’s Pizza, which conducted a survey of 1,000 adults, says the approximate number of pizza slices eaten by the average American is closer to 5,952.Because there are some people who don’t really care for pizza -- if you can believe it -- somebody else had to take up the slack.As a result, about one in ten people claim to eat three slices, three times a week. Over the course of 62 years, that works out to an astounding 26,784 slices.So what’s the big attraction about pizza, aside from the cheesy flavor? Respondents to the CiCi’s survey said its convenience plays a role as does the relatively low price to get filled up.Asked what dream topping they’d put on their pizza, the top answer was lobster, followed by shrimp, crab and filet mignon.

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Why British TV Personality Katie Hopkins Gained and Lost Weight for TV

Why British TV Personality Katie Hopkins Gained and Lost Weight for TV

Courtesy of TLC(NEW YORK) — British TV personality Katie Hopkins, known for her biting beliefs on obesity, put her words into action for a new TV special.Hopkins, 39, gained nearly 50 pounds, hoping to turn around and quickly lose it, all while being filmed for the two-part special, Fat and Back.“The reason I'm losing the weight is to prove how simple it is to lose weight if you really want to, and the only way I can do that is by becoming fat myself,” Hopkins says on the TLC special.“I really believe that fat people’s solution is in their hands,” she says. “They don’t need to put so much into their face.”Hopkins, a mother of three, gained the weight by eating over 6,000 calories per day, despite a doctor telling her on the show that her weight fluctuation “is not a good idea.”During the show's filming, Hopkins also traveled to the U.S. to meet people fighting obesity who struggle to see eye-to-eye with her opinions on weight.“I look at you and I think, ‘You are a wreck of a human being,’” Hopkins tells one overweight woman, who is later seen on camera calling on her cellphone to report a hate crime.American author, TV personality and transformation pro Chris Powell says that Hopkins’ weight experiment discounts too much.“She’s focusing so much on the physical aspect of weight loss and she’s totally ignored the psychological and emotional component of it,” Powell, the host of ABC’s Extreme Weight Loss, told ABC News.Hopkins’ journey to gain and lose the weight took six months and was something that even Hopkins concedes was not as easy as she had hoped.“It actually turned out to be a real ordeal,” she says on the show. “I understand that when you are fat, you don’t want to put your trainers on and go running out the door because you think people will laugh at you.”“I know how hard it is to be fat and carry that weight around and I know no one wants to be fat by choice,” she says. “It’s about the amount you put in and how you burnt it off.”“I don’t think it has to be quite as intimidating,” she adds.The two-part special Fat and Back airs Sunday, Jan. 18, and Sunday, Jan. 25, on TLC.

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Boy, 7, Surprised with “Star Wars” Prosthetic Arm

Boy, 7, Surprised with “Star Wars” Prosthetic Arm

501st Georgia Garrison(AUGUSTA, Ga.) -- Just like Luke Skywalker, 7-year-old Liam Porter of Augusta, Georgia has been given a brand new arm.Porter, who was born without the lower part of his left arm, was recently surprised with a prosthetic arm modeled after the Imperial Clone Troopers in Star Wars.“Liam wants it made clear it is a Clone Trooper not a Storm Trooper arm,” said his mother Ryan Porter.In the Star Wars movies, Clone Troopers are the good guys and Storm Troopers are evil.Porter used to have a traditional prosthesis but it was boring and clunky, John Peterson, the limb’s designer said. The boy thinks the new arm is not only “extremely awesome,” it’s lighter and easier to move. It has a clamp on it and a rail system to slide different attachments on and off. As he grows, the arm can be adjusted.Porter’s space-age appendage was arranged by E-nable, a global network of volunteers who 3D print mechanical hands and arms for kids in need then give them away for free.Jon Schull, E-nable’s founder, is also a research scientist at the Rochester Institute of Technology. He said the group pairs each child with a “maker” who takes a basic prosthetic design and customizes it.Peterson went above and beyond, Schull noted.“I believe this is the first Clone Trooper arm we’ve done,” Schull said.The arm took about three months to make and cost about $300, according to Peterson. The price tag for a typical prosthetic arm is upwards of $9,000, Schull pointed out.In its first year, E-nable has given away more than 700 arms and hands. Members of 501st Georgia Garrison, a group of people who dress up as Storm (and Clone) Troopers, presented Porter with his at a surprise ceremony held at a local movie theater.“He was actually speechless, which for him is a rarity,” his mom said. “It’s amazing John donated his time and own money to make this happen, just to see the joy on my son’s face.”

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Kelly Clarkson Describes ‘Horrible Pregnancy’

Kelly Clarkson Describes ‘Horrible Pregnancy’

Ethan Miller/Getty Images(NEW YORK) -- Kelly Clarkson is thrilled to be a mother, but said she had a “horrible pregnancy.”In an interview with BBC Radio, the “Stronger” singer said her nausea was so bad that she would throw up up to 25 times a day."I had to kind of take longer off because I had such a horrible pregnancy -- like, I was like hospitalized,” she said. “It was just a bad pregnancy so I had to take off way more time than normal.”Clarkson, 32, gave birth to daughter River Rose seven months ago.ABC News’ Dr. Jennifer Ashton said such extreme nausea was “consistent with a diagnosis of hyperemesis or HG.”HG, or hyperemesis gravidarum, is a rare but severe form of morning sickness. Ashton, a practicing OB/GYN and senior medical contributor for ABC News, said hyperemesis can be very serious.

"We don't know what causes it but we do know how to treat it and that could be anything from changing their diet, to needing to hospitalize them to placing an indwelling feeding tube in some cases,” she said.Britain’s Duchess Kate suffered HG with her first child, Prince George, and has also had it during her current pregnancy with her second child.

Despite the challenges leading to River’s arrival, Clarkson said motherhood has changed her for the better.“You have a baby and you realize how much of a complete crap you were. ...I've never been, like, horrible -- I just mean, I guess, just, in our job in the entertainment world we get very self-involved and, like, everything is about you so, it's nice to have a different perspective,” she said.Clarkson, who is married to Brandon Blackwell, said she already wants another child."I love it. I love it,” she said, speaking of being a mother. “(River)’s pretty awesome and my husband is running from me because I want another one.”

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Avoid Pinterest Fails: How to Frost the Perfect Cookie Monster Cupcake

Avoid Pinterest Fails: How to Frost the Perfect Cookie Monster Cupcake

Karen Pickus/ABC News(NEW YORK) — Did you ever see a beautiful treat on Pinterest, tried to make it and failed spectacularly?Melissa Rycroft did just that this morning on ABC’s Good Morning America, revealing the results of her Rainbow Cake in a Jar and Cookie Monster cupcake experiments.Sonja Foust told GMA’s special correspondent just where she went wrong with the Rainbow Cake.

People typically put too much batter in the jar, Foust said, adding that jars should only be filled to the halfway point. Jars filled to more than two-thirds will overflow, she said.[Click here to send GMA a photo of your own Pinterest fail!]

Another mistake people make is using store-bought batter, she said. Because that batter is typically thinner, the colors tend to bleed together. She recommended that people make their own cake batter.She also said people should make sure their jars are placed in pans filled with water during baking, saying that this helped keep the colors bright.Here are tips for how you can frost the perfect Cookie Monster cupcake:Frosting Tips for Cookie Monster Cupcake

Your cupcakes must be completely cooled before you try to frost them. Use an ice cream scoop to mold frosting into a dome shape. Place the frosting dome on top of the cupcake. This serves as the base for the blue Cookie Monster hair and face and makes it much easier to create the face. For the blue hair, use decorator’s frosting. It has the correct stiffness to allow each strand of hair to stand up. Regular frosting is a bit too creamy to hold up. Use the correct frosting tips. This is really important. In order to get the perfect cookie monster hair, you need a tip with tiny holes in it. You can get these at specialty baking stores. If you don’t have the correct frosting tip, many recipes recommend taking a zip-lock bag and poking six holes in one corner using bamboo skewers and using this to make the hair. We think this is too hard! Refrigerate immediately after piping the frosting out.

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The Key to Getting School Kids to Eat Fruits and Vegetables

The Key to Getting School Kids to Eat Fruits and Vegetables

Dorling Kindersley RF/Thinkstock(ITHACA, N.Y.) — Although the goal of the National School Lunch Program is to get youngsters to eschew junk food for fruits and vegetables, it’s hasn’t always worked out that way, judging by how much produce gets tossed out after lunch.However, researchers David Just of Cornell University and Joseph Price of Brigham Young University may have found a way reverse this trend. It involves rescheduling recess.After making close to 23,000 observations of students at seven elementary schools, which included watching the amount of fruits and vegetable that were thrown away after lunch, Just and Price discovered that when recess was switched to before lunch, produce consumption increased by 54 percent, largely because physical activity made them hungrier.They reasoned that when recess follows lunch, children are more apt to rush through their meals to get outside with the first casualty being healthy food choices.Scheduling recess before lunch also resulted in a 45 percent increase in youngsters’ eating at least one serving of fruits and vegetables.Best of all, say Just and Price, moving recess ahead of lunch involves no additional cost to the school.

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Learning a Second Language at a Young Age Improves Brain Function

Learning a Second Language at a Young Age Improves Brain Function

iStock/Thinkstock(KENT, England) — Learning a second language isn’t only a smart thing to do but it can also make you smarter. That’s provided if you do it early enough in life.Researchers at the University of Kent School of Psychology say children who began learning English at age 10 improved the brain’s white matter structure, which affects how the brain learns and functions.They discovered this by looking at the brains of kids who took up English as a second language at age 10 compared to those of youngsters who only spoke English.Not only is white matter improved, according to the Kent researchers, but for those who become adept at a second language, that improved area of the brain “protects them against deterioration in older age.”

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NYC Department of Health: Bacteria Found in Cooling Towers of Residential Facility

NYC Department of Health: Bacteria Found in Cooling Towers of Residential Facility

Stock Photo: Tom Le Goff/Digital Vision/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- The New York City Health Department announced Tuesday that after 12 residents of the Bronx -- and eight residents of the Co-op City neighborhood -- have been diagnosed with Legionnaires' disease since December 2014, tests have revealed that cooling towers in Co-op City are contaminated with Legionella bacteria.The Health Department says it will continue to investigate whether the cooling towers are the source of the recent cases. Still, the NYCDH recommends immediate steps be taken to decontaminate the cooling tower to minimize the risk. Co-op City is among the largest residential complexes in the nation.Infected water is used to cool Co-op City's heating and electrical systems, but the water in those towers is self-contained and totally separate from water used by residents for drinking, cooking and bathing."The Health Department is concerned about this sudden increase in Legionnaires' disease in the Bronx," Health Commissioner Dr. Mary Bassett said Tuesday. "We are conducting a thorough investigation and working closely with River Bay Corporation to minimize the public risk and to prevent future cases."Symptoms of Legionnaires' disease can include fever, chills and cough, as well as muscle aches, headache, fatigue, loss of appetite, confusion and sometimes diarrhea.

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Too Much Chlorine in Indoor Pool ‘Burned’ Children’s Skin, Mom Says

Too Much Chlorine in Indoor Pool ‘Burned’ Children’s Skin, Mom Says

Ernest Prim/iStock/Thinkstock(MONROEVILLE, Pa.) -- Consuela Matthews was right on track to give her daughter the coolest 11th birthday party she could muster. The kids were splashing in an indoor pool and would spend the night at a hotel like little grown-ups under her supervision.But as the weekend's birthday adventure at the Hampton Inn in Monroeville, Pennsylvania, drew to a close, her daughter, TaJah Matthews, and her four friends developed strange rashes that worried Consuela Matthews enough to alert the other mothers and apologize. Then, one of the mothers called to say her daughter's doctor said it was a chemical burn."Everything seemed perfectly normal," Matthews said, adding that she never dreamed the girls would get chemical burns.All five of the children at the party eventually took separate trips to the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center on Monday, and some -- but not all -- were diagnosed with first-degree burns, Matthews said, though doctors could not confirm for any of them whether chlorine caused their injuries. They were all given creams to treat their injured skin as if it had been burned, she said.The hospital was unable to confirm details of Matthews' account because they didn't have release forms from the parents.The Hampton Inn is investigating what happened, regional director of operations Michael Gulotty told ABC News. He said another group with children also complained over the weekend.Gulotty said a certified pool operator tests chlorine levels at the hotel three times a day and records the results for inspection by the county health department in accordance with the law. An independent company also comes by to do additional tests at least once a week."The tests reflected a level of 2, with a level of 1 to 5 being acceptable," he told ABC News. "Higher than 5 is when too much chlorine is being introduced. Lower than 1 and not enough is being introduced."But when someone from the health department came to check the chlorine on Monday in a test unrelated to this case, it showed a chlorine level of 10, Gulotty said."Our technician repeated our certified test in front of inspector and the result was a 2," he said. "Please note, we already have the third-party test occurring each week, and they show us in the 2 to 5 range for the last several tests. Regardless, we are using a new testing method and verifying its accuracy. We closed the pool until our investigation is completed."Pool chemical injuries resulted in nearly 5,000 emergency room visits in 2012, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. About half of them were deemed preventable and happened to children and teenagers. Poisoning was the most common injury.A 2008 study out of the West Virginia Bureau for Public Health chronicled a similar situation in which more than two dozen people were exposed to chlorine and ammonia byproducts at a hotel pool. About 84 percent of them developed a cough, 78 percent had eye irritation and 34 percent developed a rash.Matthews and the kids in her care arrived at the hotel on Friday, went to the pool three times, spending two hours in the water each time, before leaving the hotel on Sunday, she said.One girl said that her underarms were irritated, but she went back in the pool anyway, Matthews said. So Matthews didn't think anything of it."I did notice the water was burning my eyes a whole lot," Matthews said, adding that she always opens her eyes underwater when she swims. "I said, 'Oh my goodness, this really burns.'"Matthews didn't think anything of it until Sunday when the girls were "really, really hurting," she said. Although Matthews didn't develop a rash, she said the skin under the girls' arms turned red and the area under their eyes turned red, too."It's peeling," she said. "It looks like a rug burn. I don’t understand."Dr. Kord Honda, director of dermatopathology at UH Case Medical Center in Cleveland, said he had never heard of chemical burns from swimming in too much chlorine, but said he would expect it to be red, painful and eventually start to peel. He said he would expect a burn-like reaction from washing hands in undiluted bleach or being involved in some kind of industrial accident."This would be a very uncommon occurrence," Honda said. "You would have to get to a fairly high concentration for it to be toxic."

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Unleash Your Inner Cookie Monster with Ben & Jerry’s New Cookie Core Flavors

Unleash Your Inner Cookie Monster with Ben & Jerry’s New Cookie Core Flavors

MichaelJay/iStock Editorial/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) --  Ben & Jerry’s is starting the year off with a bang. The playful ice cream company announced three new flavors that have cookie cores. Yes, you read that right: cores made out of cookies.The three new pints are varied, each featuring a favorite flavor with chocolate, peanut butter and speculoos, a spiced shortcrust biscuit, options. Boom Chocolatta! Cookie Core has mocha and caramel ice creams with chocolate cookies, fudge flakes and a chocolate cookie core; Peanut Buttah Cookie Core is made of peanut butter ice cream with crunchy peanut butter sugar bits, peanut butter cookies and a peanut butter cookie core; and Spectacular Speculoos Cookie Core has dark caramel and vanilla ice creams with speculoos cookies and speculoos cookie butter core.To be specific, the cores are made of cookie butter, which differentiates from cookie dough by being cooked first and then blended, usually with something to thin them out, like butter, milk or oil.“I think our Flavor Gurus nailed it. These are cookies you’ll want to spoon!” Ben & Jerry’s CEO Jostein Solheim said in a statement, calling the flavors “creative, indulgent and delicious.”Ben & Jerry’s introduced their Core line early last year with Hazed & Confused, That’s My Jam, Peanut Butter Fudge and Salted Caramel cores.

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BPA Replacement Could Be Just As Bad for People As BPA

BPA Replacement Could Be Just As Bad for People As BPA

monticelllo/iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- Researchers at the University of Calgary found that a chemical often used to replace the plastic chemical bisphenol A -- formerly used in baby bottles and sippy cups before the FDA required thoe products to be BPA-Free -- may be worse for people than BPA itself.The study, published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, notes that BPA has been linked to "increased risk of developing social, psychiatric and behavioral challenges later in life." While adults can also be impacted by BPA, researchers say the fetal brain is particularly vulnerable.According to the study, bisphenol S is the primary replacement for BPA in thermal paper used for credit card receipts. Many products labeled "BPA-Free" contain BPS. Researchers exposed embryonic zebrafish to small doses of both compounds and found that both can alter the normal developmental timing of at least one critical section of the brain.In fact, researchers say, BPS was linked with higher levels of abnormal growth surges of neurons in the brains of the the zebrafish than BPA was. In a news release, one of the study's authors said that "finding the mechanism linking low doses of BPA (or BPS) to adverse brain development and hyperactivity is almost like finding a smoking gun."Researchers recommend that pregnant women limit their exposure to bisphenols entirely -- including BPA and BPS.

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Baby Victim of GoFundMe Dispute Gets Heart Transplant

Baby Victim of GoFundMe Dispute Gets Heart Transplant

Rachel Knickerbocker(MILWAUKEE) -- The Knickerbockers went to the hospital in the middle of the night to give their 5-month-old son one last cuddle before his heart transplant surgery."We held him and loved him and snuggled him," Tyler Knickerbocker, 23, told ABC News. "He was really smiley, in a really good place to go into the transplant."Baby Noah was born with aortic valve stenosis and needed a new heart to survive. His parents, Rachel and Tyler Knickerbocker, had been living at a Milwaukee Ronald McDonald House more than an hour from their Huntley, Illinois, home for Noah's entire life, awaiting the life-saving surgery. They said they recently became victims of a GoFundMe fraud when their family friend created a donation page for Noah, then closed it and did not give them the money.He said he can do whatever he wants with the money he raised and has donated some to charity.

The Knickerbockers' 24-hour nail-biter started at about 10:30 p.m. on Sunday. Doctors told the Knickerbockers that they'd been offered a heart that was a match for Noah, but because Noah had undergone a blood transfusion, they weren't sure if they could do the surgery. So the couple anxiously waited until 2 a.m., when doctors decided it was safe to perform the transplant."The time between knowing and not knowing was just ungodly," Tyler Knickerbocker said.The surgery began long before dawn and finished up in about seven hours, he said. It was at least three hours shorter than expected, and everything appeared to be going smoothly.Before the Knickerbockers could see Noah in recovery, doctors found that Noah had a blood pocket and needed to be opened up again for more surgery.Doctors didn't close Noah's chest cavity until Tuesday morning, but the Knickerbockers got to see him anyway. Though Tyler Knickerbocker said Noah's coloring looked good, he said it was hard to see his little boy with his chest open."It's honestly very, very scary," he said. "It's a terrifying thing that we've been going through this since last May. It's been a long, rough road."The Knickerbockers said they recently became victims of a GoFundMe fraud when a family friend created a donation page for Noah, collected as much as $6,500 and then closed it without giving them any of the money, which they’d hoped to use to lessen the financial burden of staying in Milwaukee to be near Noah.

The man who created the page, Ken Wills, told ABC News he sold some of his own property to raise the funds and could, therefore, do whatever he wanted with the money. ABC News has confirmed that Wills donated some of it to charities that provided services to Noah and his family, but he says he will not give any of the funds he raised directly to the Knickerbockers.Between 200 and 300 children younger than a year old receive heart transplants every year, according to data from the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network, the organization under contract with the federal government to allocate organs. Of the 24,383 heart transplants performed nationwide in 2014, 229 occurred in children younger than a year old.Rachel Knickerbocker, 21, said she's feeling better now that Noah's chest is closed, but she'll be on edge until Noah is through his critical recovery period. She's worried about the next 72 hours and then the next several months."We're just happy we got through the transplant successfully," she said. "Now, we just want to get through the recovery successfully."

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Fish Has Surgery to Get Glass Eye

Fish Has Surgery to Get Glass Eye

Courtesy Vancouver Aquarium(NEW YORK) -- Cosmetic surgery and marine animals don't normally go together, but one fish had some work done to help him thrive at the Vancouver Aquarium.The rockfish underwent special surgery to have a glass eye implanted.After the fish had its original eye removed because of cataracts, the medical team was worried it might get attacked.The head veterinarian at the Vancouver Aquarium, Dr. Martin Haulena, affixed a special taxidermy eye to the fish while the animal was put under anesthesia.In a video of the procedure, Haulena said the surgery is more than just cosmetic."We do find when fish are blind from one eye and has no visible eye, other fish recognize that and will kind of attack from that side," said Haulena.A spokeswoman for the aquarium confirmed the fish was doing much better after the surgery.

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How Cold Weather Can Help You Lose Weight Without Exercising

How Cold Weather Can Help You Lose Weight Without Exercising

Fuse/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- Turning down the thermostat may not only help you save on your heating bill, it also could be the secret to losing weight.Research published last year in the journal Cell Metabolism compared the calorie burn in subjects as they exercised in a 65 degree lab and then lay down on a bed chilled to 53 degrees until they started shivering.In both tests, the subjects produced a hormone called irisin that converted sluggish white fat cells designed to store body fat into metabolically active brown fat cells designed to rev up calorie burn. Shivering muscles released another hormone, FGF21, that further boosted calorie burn.Around 50 grams of brown fat burned an additional 300 calories daily, the study found. That’s about the same as a 30-minute jog, according to the Compendium of Physical Activity.“This is most likely not a permanent change but it can produce some weight loss,” said Ajay Chawla, a brown fat researcher with the University of California, San Francisco who was not involved with the study.Babies are born with vast amounts of brown fat distributed over their bodies that melts away as they grow, Chawla said. In response to cold, adults may make another kind of brown fat, known as “beige brown fat,” that has been shown to reverse obesity in mice.“Most of us are not under much thermal stress, which means brown fat production has basically been turned off in our bodies,” he said.Using the cold to lose weight without exercise is theoretically possible by ratcheting down the thermostat to the point where you feel chilly all the time, Chawla said.A Japanese study published last year showed subjects who donned hospital gowns and spent several hours a day in a 61-degree room lost about a pound in six weeks. Keep up this routine over the course of the year and you would expect to drop about 15 pounds without setting foot in the gym, Chawla said.However, as Chawla pointed out, most people have little tolerance for such discomfort. They’d prefer to stay toasty warm.“Enduring a few moments of cold each day in the winter isn’t enough to stimulate brown fat production,” Chawla said. “People may actually gain weight in colder months because they tend to move less and eat more.”The solution, Chawla said, may eventually come in the form of a pill.“Pharmacologically, we may be able to develop something that stimulates brown fat cells without the exposure to cold,” he said.

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Universal Flu Vaccine Soon a Reality, Scientists Say

Universal Flu Vaccine Soon a Reality, Scientists Say

iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — A flu vaccine that works against all flu viruses and provides protection for at least two decades is getting closer to reality, according to scientists at Mount Sinai Health System.The organization’s vaccine would offer better, broader and longer-lasting protection against seasonal influenza viruses as well as novel influenza viruses, Dr. Peter Palese, the chair of the department of microbiology of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, told ABC News Monday.“It could potentially protect someone for a whole lifetime,” Palese said.For example, this year’s flu vaccine was not well-matched for the dominate strain of the virus currently circulating, Palese said. It is only 33 percent effective, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, because the virus “drifted” from its original form after the vaccine went into production. The production process has to start several months before the flu season begins.The number of people who have the flu in the U.S. is at epidemic levels, according to the CDC, with widespread activity reported in at least 43 states. With this year’s strain especially virulent, 26 children have died from flu complications so far this season. The agency is also part of another group working on a universal vaccine, a CDC spokeswoman told ABC News.A universal shot would prevent this year’s scenario from reoccurring by targeting the part of the influenza virus that remains unchanged from year to year, explained Dr. William Schaffner, chairman of Preventive Medicine at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville.Schaffner described the influenza virus as a sphere with “a bunch of lollipops on stems sticking out of it.” The “sucker” part of the lollipop changes from year to year but the stem parts do not, Schaffner said. The universal vaccine would attack the stem portions of the virus, theoretically protecting against all strains, he said.“A universal vaccine is the Holy Grail and the prospects of what this could do for medicine is staggering,” Schaffner said, adding that while hopeful, questions remain about how effective such a vaccine will be.“So far no one has been able to develop a vaccine that works against every type of flu,” said Dr. Richard Besser, ABC News chief health and medical editor. “I’d urge caution until scientists present data showing they’ve really been able to achieve this.”Palese said the Mount Sinai team was hopeful the vaccine would work.“We really hope it will be effective on humans -- but of course the jury is still out,” he said.Palese said the team’s universal vaccine will go into clinical trials later this year.Learn how the flu spreads and how to protect you and your family. Join ABC News Health tweet chat Tuesday at 1 p.m. ET. Here’s how.

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